autism

Life, Animated: A "Multiple Intelligences" Way to Think About Autism

Notes by Howard Gardner

By no means am I an expert on autism, Asperger’s syndrome, or what is now called the Autistic Spectrum. Nonetheless, when I was attempting to identify the separate intelligences, over thirty years ago, studies of autism were highly germane. One of the chief criterions for an intelligence is its strong existence, or its noticeable absence in a part of the population. Accordingly, I was very interested in prodigies. Most prodigies are not prodigious ‘across-the-board.’ Rather, they are especially strong in mathematics, in music, and/or in chess. By the same token, I was very interested in individuals with autism. Autistic individuals are virtually defined by their deficit in one or two areas: useful language and/or an understanding of other persons. And though it is scarcely the rule, many autistic individuals have a particular ‘island of strength’; for example, musical ability, mechanical ability, and/or skill in freehand drawing.

Of course, there has been a huge amount of research in this area in the intervening three decades. We are far better at diagnosing autism and at delineating types and subtypes along the autistic spectrum. We know something about the biology, the genetics, and the brain structure and functions of autistic individuals. And there have been numerous efforts to help autistic individuals, either by building on their areas of strength or by creating environments in which they are better able to accomplish their goals.

Still, I am quite sure that I was not alone in being stunned by the recently published book by noted journalist Ron Suskind, entitled Life, Animated. In this text, Suskind describes two decades in which he and his wife strove to help their autistic son Owen. An article summarizing some of the content from the book was published by the New York Times and is available by clicking here.

Of the various ‘treatments’ and experiences that the Suskinds went through with Owen, by far the most successful was the repeated viewing of Walt Disney full-length cartoon movies. While watching these movies innumerable times may have been tedious for the Suskind parents, the experience proved invaluable for their son. Through viewing the movies, and then replaying them in his own mind, Owen learned about the world of other persons. More specifically, he learned both about the range of emotions that individuals, including himself, experience; and how to talk about these experiences in ways that would make sense to others and to himself.

From an MI point of view, the movies were the catalyst or ‘trigger’ for awakening both of the intelligences that are classically weak in individuals with autism. The movies foregrounded various personal and emotional situations (love, jealousy, pride, fear), hence strengthening the personal intelligences; and provided a vocabulary with which to describe these personal situations, hence strengthening the linguistic intelligence. While it is no means clear that Walt Disney had these spheres as his original goals, his genius was to devise vehicles of entertainment that appealed across the globe, across the age spectrum, and, as we now see, across a range of human differences.

The Autism Advantage

Notes by Howard Gardner

I’ve often quipped that the individuals most skeptical about MI theory are mathematicians. They know that there is only one intelligence: logical-mathematical intelligence. But they become instant converts when one of their children has a learning disability, or even a very skewed profile of abilities and disabilities. All of a sudden I hear the phrases, “Oh, of course, we’ve always known about multiple talents” or even, “Ah, now I understand that they mean by multiple intelligences.”

When I was doing the research on MI, well over thirty years ago, the most powerful evidence for the independence of intelligences was the existence of ‘special populations.’ Because I was working with brain-damaged adults, what stood out for me were individuals who had a selective destruction of a capacity (e.g. language, spatial orientation) or, less frequently, a selective sparing of a capacity (e.g. music or personal intelligences). As far as I could determine, there was no way in which the intellectual profiles of such individuals could be accounted for by standard IQ theory.

I did not have personal experience with autistic children (though now I would say that I have known several children and adults who could comfortably be placed on the Asperger/autistic spectrum).  But I was struck by the isolated sparing, in some autistic children, of musical or mechanical abilities; as well as the selective damage to personal and linguistic intelligences in individuals with otherwise impressive spatial, logical, or musical capacities. And so the existence of an autistic population was further evidence in favor of MI theory.

Since that time, of course, there has been a great increase in the number of documented cases of autism/Aspergers syndrome and much documentation of particular configurations and possible causes and cures/ameliorations of this condition.

This article stands out because it designates areas in which we can expect many autistic/Asperger individuals to have an advantage and indicates how these can be utilized at the work place. Such demonstrations are more important than ever before. In the area of education, David Rose’s organization (www.cast.org) has put forth the intriguing and convincing argument that it is not learners who are disabled; it is curricula that are disabled. And CAST tries to repair this balance by presenting educational materials in ways that speak to individuals who have one or another kind of deficit.  I look forward to the time when we will also think of workplaces as being enabled or disabled; and when the workplace is disabled, it would be highly desirable to make it more comfortable for individuals with a variety of intellectual profiles. Not only would this serve the individuals well; it might even increase the efficacy and the comfort level of the workplace. No doubt digital technology can be mobilized to aid in this important undertaking.

To read the article in its entirety click here.