Notes by Howard Gardner
When the theory of multiple intelligences was proposed thirty five years ago, I drew on evidence from a number of different disciplines and fields. By far the most dramatic source of evidence emanated from studies of brain functioning. I had worked for years in a neurological clinic. In that setting, I had the opportunity both to observe individuals who had an ability destroyed, or spared, in isolation; and through the instrumentation of CT scans, to determine which areas of the brain had been destroyed or spared in cases of specific deficits or preserved strengths. If anything set apart my theory from that of other theories of intelligence, it was the culling of information about the brain basis and loci of specific intellectual capacities.
In the intervening years, far more sophisticated measures of brain activity are available, several ‘in vivo’. Through PET scans, MRI, and other measures, we have far more detailed and specific information about brain involvement in various cognitive activities.
Taking advantage of these new measures, Branton Shearer and Jessica Karnian have carried out a very intriguing study. They have examined the cognitive neuroscience literature to find references to activities associated with each of the several intelligences; and then they have gathered the information in a paper "The Neuroscience of Intelligences: Empirical Support for the Theory of Multiple Intelligences”. The paper was presented recently at the annual meeting of the International Mind Brain and Education Society in Toronto.
As the authors interpret the data, the large body of literature provides support for the validity of MI theory. Obviously this conclusion pleases me. But more important than a confirmation of specific claims is the re-opening of the question of neural bases for different cognitive activities, and how that evidence relates to claims about “general” intelligence. All scientists understand that their particular claims are likely to be modified; we hope to have contributed a significant element to our emerging understandings. Below, please find a set of slides describing their study. Click on the images to enlarge them.